Implantology: What is a dental implant?
A dental implant consists of a titanium pin that is inserted into the jaw bone instead of the root of the missing natural tooth, acting as a support for the new tooth. The implant is composed of two basic components, a part that corresponds to the root of the tooth that is inserted inside the bone / gum during simple surgery and then another component that corresponds to the crown of the tooth that is screwed or cemented to the primary / root component via a connection abutment.
The implant transmits the masticatory forces to the jawbone, which invokes the preservation of the natural jawbone and helps to support the facial structure.
With conventional methods the replacement of a single dental element by means of the bridge would involve filing and therefore a considerable biological sacrifice of tooth substance for the two teeth adjacent to the missing tooth and also the bridge, and not transmitting the chewing forces to the underlying bone. It would not be considered conservation of the natural jaw bone.
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With modern implantology it is possible to rehabilitate anything from a single tooth to mouths with many compromised dental elements or even to completely edentulous mouths without any residual dental element. In all the aforementioned cases there are completely reliable standardized procedures that allow a quick and painless restoration of masticatory function.
The healing phase following implant placement surgery lasts 6 to 12 weeks, depending on the specific condition of each patient. In particularly favorable cases the presence of bone in perfect condition, means an immediate implant stability can connect with the bone and the immediate placing of the tooth (crown). Otherwise a temporary crown is placed on the implant on the same day as the implant positioning operation before the final crown after a few weeks.
When implantology began to take its first steps, the prevailing tendency was to place implants in the mouth of patients who lacked some teeth or completely without teeth, with an implant for each missing dental element.
Implantology trend today
The trend is now completely inverted and several scientific studies support the rehabilitation of an entire dental arch through only 4 Implants in the “ALL on four” system. If we tried to position the parallel implants between them and according to the axis of chewing load, it has been seen at a scientific level as even “tilted implants” have an excellent response in functional and biological terms. Unlike a few years ago when extensive bone reconstruction interventions were often carried out precisely to have a correct insertion axis of the implants for the realization of the prosthetic crowns (teeth), now the planning of angled implants enables us to better exploit the availability of residual bone in the patient’s mouths bypassing sensitive anatomical structures (eg maxillary sinus, inferior alveolar nerve) and allowing surgical interventions with minimal invasiveness.
Fixed restoration on four “ALL on four ” implants
Computer guided implant surgery: scalpel-free implantology
This is one of the most recent acquisitions in the field of implant surgery and allows the surgeon an implant positioning assisted by guide masks whose realization takes place at digital level, through computerized software, following a TAC programming of the 3D position of the implant inside the bone crest. This method, in some cases, particularly favorable for the conditions of available bone volumes, allows the surgeon to avoid the incision and opening of the gingiva by means of a scalpel and consequently the need to give stitches since there is no solution of continuity or surgical wound to be sutured.